The flow loss in many wells is due simply to a lowering water table. Drilling and conservation may be the only solution.
However, for the majority of water wells, flow loss is due to biological and/or mineral deposit plugging the natural flow of water. Studies show the typical water well will maintain its efficiency for the first 10-12 years of its life. After this point most wells require some type of rehabilitation.
At this point of the problem is not how or why the water flow is obstructed but how best to remove the obstruction. Some plugging will be removed by bailing, swabbing, surging, or pumping. Wells can also be “air-lifted” to help loosen some deposits. Chemicals can also be added to further remove deposits. The combination of mechanical and chemical methods to treat wells provides a better job in less time.
When pathways are unobstructed, water flow is restored and the wells recharge more quickly thus consuming less energy and extending the life of the pump and motor.